• Businesses
    Businesses:  the project is exploring 3 main areas with businesses – how to support small-medium enterprises (SMEs) defined here as businesses with under 50 employees) to become more energy-efficient and more productive; what interest and opportunities there are for SMEs to adopt more energy-efficient transport cultures; and what new business opportunities there are for NZ firms in future transport.
  • Energy Behaviour
    Energy behaviour refers to all human actions that affect the way that fuels (electricity, gas, petroleum, coal, etc) are used to achieve desired products and services, including the acquisition or disposal of energy-related technologies and materials, and how these are used.
  • Energy Behaviour Change
    Energy behaviour change includes changes in energy-related technologies and infrastructure, in the types of fuels used, in the practices that either use energy or avoid the use of energy, and in the timing and pattern of energy use.
  • Energy Cultures
    Energy Cultures are the distinctive pattern of interactions between what we have (“material culture”), what we do (“practices”) and what we consider to be normal (“norms”) that give rise to our energy behaviour.Energy cultures can be seen at different scales, for example at the level of a single business or household, or clusters of households with similar patterns, or across a business sector, or even at a national level (e.g. New Zealand’s energy culture compared to Sweden’s).
  • Energy Practices
    Energy practices are the actions that influence how energy is used.  These include one-off actions like purchasing a home or appliance, through to everyday activities like how you do your washing or how you drive your car.
  • Households
    Households: The project is continuing some work from Energy Cultures 1 looking at trends in household space heating and hot water heating, but also looking more widely at household energy cultures, culture changes, and householders’ aspirations for change.
  • Material Culture
    For the purposes of the Energy Cultures framework:Material culture is all of the physical entities that influence how energy is used. This includes infrastructure, building technologies, appliances and fuels.
  • Norms
    Norms are expectations about what is ‘normal’.These include expectations about what kinds of material culture you should ideally have (e.g. is it important to have an energy-efficient fridge?), what kinds of practices you should undertake (e.g. do you expect to put on a jersey when you’re cold at home, or put on the heater?), and what kinds of services one should expect from the use of energy (e.g. how warm do you expect your house to be?).
  • Transport
    Transport: the project is looking at the ‘big picture’ of transport in New Zealand, including freight, personal travel and business travel.The main focus is on how to improve the energy efficiency of the New Zealand transport system, which might include adoption of new technologies, fuels, transport practices, and changes in infrastructure, law and policy.